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(Step by Step)

Ihraam: Two piece of unstitched white (preferably) clothes (2 ½ meters each) Take Bath (With the niyyat of Ihraam) and perform “Wadu”.
            Put on Ihraam, perform two Rak-at Nifil Namaz for “UMRAH”. Take care if it is a prohibited (Makrooh) time.

Niyyat Namaz-e-Umrah:-
            Doo rak-at nafil namaz baraye Umrah ada Karne ki niyyat karta hoon waste Allah ke monh mera taraf Baith Allah ke. Cover head by Ihraam, only during the Namaz.
            During above namaz, preferably recite sura Kafiroon after, Sura Fatiha during first rak-at, and during Second rak-at after Sura Fatiha Sura Iqlaas may be recited. If one does’t remember said Suras, other suraas may be recited.

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry

            The term chemotherapy was introduced Ehrlnish 1909 and it appears to be was in the treatment of diseases give to bacterial invention by chemical compounds which destroys the micro organisms without affecting to the tishese or cells of host.

            Compound which exerts various philogical effects of therapeutic value are collectively known as drugs.

Types of drugs:
1.         Sulpha drugs                        2.         Anti malerial
3.         Arsenical Drugs       4.         Anti biotics

1.         Sulpha Drugs:
            Sulpha Drugs
            Sulpha namide (Paramino Benzene Sulphonamino) and its derivative, have grate anti bacterial powers sulphanamide itself is widely used in medicines.
Ex: Sulphonamides.

2.         Anti malarial:
            Quenin was originally used as anti material drugs but there is a number of synthetic compounds us for this purpose plasmoani, Nepatrive, probuahal.

3.         Ascenical Drugs:
            These are used in the treatment of Phyics.
Ex :
            1.         Arsphenanine commercial name,
                        (Salvassan) 606),
2.                  Trytassamibe

4.         Anti biotics
            Many miaro organisms produse within themselves chemical substances which when excretes, interphire with the growth or metabolism or other micro organism such compounds are called anti biotic.

            And need be present in low concentration to bring about anti-biotic action.

Ex :
            In 1929 phenin discovered a mold of the penicillium specis which in nibited the growth of the sertain.



Analytical Chemistry


v     Introduction
v     Accuracy
v     Precision
v     Classification of Errors
v     Determinant errors.
v     Indeterminate errors.
v     Absolute errors.
v     Relative errors

Analytical chemistry [Errors]

            Analytical chemistry is one of the most important branches of chemistry which deals with the resolution, separation, identification and determination of the constituents of a gives sample of maters

            The subject falls under 2 categories
 1.        Qualitative analysis             2.         Quantitative analysis

Accuracy: The term accuracy is designed as the closeness of (matter) measurement or a set of measurements to the thick or accepted value.
            Accuracy is gradually exposed as terms of absolute errors & relative errors.

            The term precision is designed as the degree of agreement between 2 or more replicate measurements made on a sample in an identical manner i.e., exactly in the same fashion is known as the precision of the measurements.
            Precession reflects   the closeness among replicate measurements of the same quantity or responsibility of the results.

Errors :
            Errors are defined as the numerical differences between as measured value and the absolute or true value of an analytical determination.

Classification of Errors
1.      Determinate or constant errors.
2.      Indeterminable or random errors
3.      Cross errors.
4.      Errors in measurements.
5.      Other errors.
6.      Absolute errors.
7.      Relative errors.

Determinate errors:
            These are errors which can be avoided & whose magnitude can be determined and the measurements rectified a determinate error is characterized by the fact that it effects to the same degree the results of a series of determinations these can be classified depending upon the system measured observer and the instrument classification of determinant errors. There are classified into following categories.

1.                  Personal errors.
2.                  Operational errors.
3.                  Instrumental & reagent errors.
4.                  Metabolic errors.
5.                  Additive and proportional errors.

II.         In determinant Errors:
            These errors are accidental and quite into intorgiber over which the analyst has no control. These errors are revealed by the small differences in the successive values of measured quantity when the measurements are made by the same analyst.

Classification of in determinant errors.
            In determinant errors ca be divided into 2 classes
1.                  Variations within determinato errors
2.                  Erratic errors.

Absolute errors
            The errors in a measured quantity may be represented either as absolute errors or as relative errors. The absolute error E in a measurement is expressed as

E = xi-x1

            Where xi is the measured value and it is the true (accepted) value for the given measurement.

Relative errors:
            The relative errors Er in a measurement is expressed as

Er =
            When xi and xi have the same significant as maintained above. Relative error is generally expressed as percent or parts per thousand (PPT)

                        Er = x100%               or         Er = x1000 ppt

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